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Psychotherapy – a treatment of disorders with the use of psychological methods. “Conscious and intended use of clinical methods and interpersonal attitudes derived from the recognized principles of psychology which helps people modify their behaviour, cognitive processes, emotions and other personal traits to go towards the desired direction” (Norcross, 1990; after; Prochaska and Norcross, 2006).

Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy – a method of treating mental disorders, problematic behaviour and emotional difficulties. It is based on the premise that our thoughts determine the way we feel and behave. In therapy we strive to change the unfavourable, often habitual, automatic thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs. To do that, the cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy uses methods of scientifically proven effectiveness.

CBT – abbreviation standing for “cognitive-behavioural therapy”.

Conceptualization – individual, cognitive formulation of a patient’s problem. Such formulation lays the ground for the treatment plan. The plan then may be changed and improved during the therapy.

Socratic dialogue – a therapeutic method; a dialogue involving both sides, it encourages you to question the existing way of thinking. By using it in the cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, we assume that patients are aware of their beliefs and it is possible for them to access information about themselves by answering relevant questions from the therapist.

Beliefs (schemes) – a cognitive structure that selects, codes and evaluates the stimuli affecting our bodies (Popiel and Pragłowska, 2008). Beliefs constitute a coherent and consolidated knowledge of an individual, formulated on the basis of previous experiences and reactions (Segal, 1988).


Popiel, A., & Pragłowska, E. Psychoterapia poznawczo-behawioralna, P. E. (2008). Teoria i praktyka. Paradygmat, Warszawa

Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2006). Systemy psychoterapeutyczne. Analiza transteoretyczna.

Segal, Z. V. (1988). Appraisal of the self-schema construct in cognitive models of depression. Psychological bulletin, 103(2), 147.

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